Reba or Riba in Islam

Reba or Riba in Islam

Research procedure:

First we have reviewed the root of word ”Reba” which means abundance, increase and rise. Then we have reviewed the verses of Quran, the main reference of religion of Islam.  In Quran we have found the commandment of prohibition of Reba and we have extracted the general principle of “no oppression to any parties of bargain” but we haven’t found any specific instances of Reba.

To accomplish our research, we have investigated narrated hadiths in narrative texts. Our research leaded us to the general principal of “fair and justly business in society”. We have also reviewed the instances of Reba in narrative texts. We have concluded that there are two types of Reba which can be found in “dealing” and “borrowing”. Reba in “dealing” is exchanging goods with more amount of the same good. Reba in ”borrowing” is borrowing with the condition of more refund. In Hadiths of Sunni books we have found the same instances of Reba.

Conclusion:

In this research we have concluded that most of Islamic scholars have issued Fatwa about the commandment of Reba without considering the situation of present society. They have only used the exact instances of Reba in hadiths, while those hadiths were for the specific historical and cultural conditions of that society. Based on our researches which are extracted from Quran and Hadiths, we can conclude that we are observing violations of the general principal of Reba in our present society.

Sources:

Philology: Alein, Alsah Tajo Al Loghah, Alnahayat Fi Gharib Alhadith, Lesan Al arab, Majamo Al Bahrein, And Larous dictionary.
Quran: Verses: Rom 39, Baqarah 276, 275, 280, 279, 278, Al e Emran 130, Nesa 161
Shia Narratives: Man la yahzar alfaghih, Sheikh Sadoogh, Tafsir Alqomi, Behar Al anvar, Tahzib Al ahkam,
Sunni Narratives: Sahih Al bokhari, Sahih Moslem
Contemporary scholars : Resaleh of ten Faghihs ( Imam Khomeini, Ayatollah Golpayegani, Ayatollah Sistani, Ayatollah Makarem, Ayatollah Fazel, Ayatollah Khooyi, Ayatollah Araki, Ayatollah Safi, Ayatollah Tabrizi, Ayatollah Saneyi, Ayatollah Mazaheri)

Paper Presentation in Baltimore, American Academy of Religion, Islam: Religion of Health and Not Submission

Paper Presentation in Baltimore, American Academy of Religion, Islam: Religion of Health and Not Submission

 

Muslims of the United States

Theme:

Islam: Religion of Health and Not Submission

Sunday, 2:00 PM–4:00 PM

RS-Guilford Bahram Borgheai, University of Massachusetts Religion and Genetic Structure

Amirali Jazayeri, Muslims of United States Association Religion in Islam

Javad Moshfegh, University of Massachusetts Meaning of Islam

For additional information, contact Bahram Borgheai at borgheai@muslims-us.org.

 

 

 

 

Islam: Religion of health, not submission

Islam: Religion of health, not submission

SUMMERY OF Islam: Religion of health, not submission

Speaker: Bahram Borgheai

March 4th 2015,  Umass Amhert

Main Questions:

There is a significant difference between the entitling of Islam and other religions. Muslims believe that the name ‘Islam’ has been selected by God[1]. What God entitles cannot be without reason. So it is legitimate to ask what the rationale behind this entitling is.

Frankly speaking, the way people treat the meaning of the term “Islam” as submission is more close to the meaning of the term /Enghiad/ which means the blind obedience. This helps abusing and misunderstanding of this religion and as stated in the question, I think it facilitates the emergence and growth of fundamentalist religious terrorism. Islam is mostly interpreted as submission (Al-Taslim) which as will be stated in the following, faces many problems.

Here, with the help of the following six criteria, it will be examined whether the conception of submission reflects the wisdom behind this divine entitling: not to be trivial, differentiating, goal determination, etymological relevance, consistent reading of Quran and vividness.  Accordingly, we analyze the ‘submission’ with these criteria. Submission interpretation can only pass the first criterion and fails in all other criteria. Therefore, we should investigate another interpretation to replace or enrich it.

According to our research, It entails that “Islam” should be interpreted as its literal meaning indicated in Arabic and Islamic lexicons. Islam is derived from the root /s l m/ and means “making healthy and avoiding harm”[2].  This health (or well-being) includes all physical, mental (spiritual) and social aspects. Interestingly, the ‘health’ interpretation passes all criteria. Specifically, health interpretation in comparison to submission provides a more consistent reading of verses in the Quran where the term ‘Islam’ is used.

Now, based on the etymological methodology, we can come back to the submission conception. Submission (/Taslim/) is similarly rooted from /slm/. Thus, it literally means selecting health, and keeping off harm. In wars “be submitted” means: do not harm yourself! Come to the way which it is healthful! Thus to reconcile the submission conception with our proposal, we could enrich its meaning as “willing and acting divine instructions to become healthy and to avoid harm”.

Interestingly, by this etymological approach, we can figure out why the followers of Islam, i.e. Muslims, are called /Momin/ in the Quran. /Momin/ is rooted from /amn/ which means kept safe, i.e. devoid of harm and danger. Thus, it implies healthy (Muslim).  The other synonym term for Muslim is /Moslih/ which is derived from /s l h/ meaning peace, i.e. being devoid of challenge and defects of war. Again there is a load of health. More interesting are the terms used in Qur’an as the antonym of Muslims, i.e. for non-believers and sinful people. One term is /Kafer/ which has rooted from /k f r/ meaning to cover. The other term is /Mojrem/ which is rooted from /j r m/ means get germs. Furthermore, frequently Qur’an describes non-believers as those whose heart is sick, the term it used is exactly sickness /Maraz/. All of these antonym terms carry the load of impurity, uncleanness and in general unhealthiness.

Good to mention that health should not be confined only to the physical health, but it should also considered as mental, bodily and social health. By this conception in many of modern problems we can find Devine’s approach.

The bodily conception of health necessitates that a Muslim should be healthy person and should follow all scientifically proven results of empirical modern medicine. Sport will be religiously mandatory. Smoking will be obviously forbidden. Suicide bombing will be forbidden.

With mental conception of health, religion and psychology will become good friends. They can come together to cure mental disorders. Thinking rationally will be mandatory, since otherwise it is not suited for a healthy mind (Muslim). Thus, all Muslims should think to their problems and blind obedience will be forbidden.

More interesting is the social conception of health. Terrorism is forbidden, since it is against and harmful for the society’s health. It ruins people and social peace. Dictatorship is forbidden.

By this interpretation, a rational and scientific exploration of Islamic instructions becomes possible. Furthermore, it stops (political) abusing of Islam and its followers through blind submission and depicts a more peaceful and scientific image of Islam to the world.

2- /Najes/ literally means polluted and impure. Recalling what stated above, granting Muslim as who has been conducted through health and getting devoid from harm and defect, it is almost in the same line that the non-believer be called impure, since they have not been kept away from pollution, impurity and defect.

It is worth noting that the terms Qur’an has used for non-Muslim people,(/kafer/ , /mojrem/ or /Najes/ or having /Maraz/) all convey a meaning that in essence they are clean and without problem, but they have been polluted or contaminated through some (external) impurities. Thus all humans are clean in nature and so, altruistically, Qur’an treat all people the same in nature, but different through gaining some covers or impurities without disturbing their essence.

 

[1] Al Imran, verse19 and Ma’idah Surah, Verse3

[2] (Tabari A., Jame al-Bayan) (MusaviSabzevari, A. ,Mavaheb-l Rahman)

 

Islam means Health, the consequences and differentiation

Mohammad Babaee explains the consequences

Mohammad Babaee shows what changes when islam is translated to health insted of submisssion

In relation to the Book writen by Mohammad babaee : Islam – The way of health and not submission

The seminar was held in July 2015 about an important issue in translation distortions in islamic terms and words. This seminar was all about the word islam and what really change when its translated to health and not submission. Mohammad babaee is the writer of the books Islam – The way of health and not submission. As many of you know Muslims of US has just bought the Islam – The way of health and as a part of our contribution to muslims communities, our mission to improve muslims knowlege and awareness we have made it free available in our events and download free.

 

Ghusl (Ablution) in islam

Meaning/ Translation of Ghosl (Ablution) in english:

ab·lu·tion

noun
noun: ablution; plural noun: ablutions
  1. the act of washing oneself (often used for humorously formal effect).
    “the women performed their ablutions”
    • a ceremonial act of washing parts of the body or sacred containers.
late Middle English: from Latin ablutio(n-), from abluere, from ab- ‘away’ + luere ‘wash.’ The original use was as a term in chemistry and alchemy meaning ‘purification by using liquids,’ hence ‘purification of the body by washing’ (mid 16th century).

A Brief History of Ghusl

 

 

The history of “Ghusl” goes back to the time that Adam and Eve were living. As stated, Adam and Eve have performed “Janabat Ghusl” [3]. Also, Seth (Son of Adam) and Gabriel (the angle) have performed “Mayat Ghusl” on Adam after his death [3]. Moreover, performing different kinds of ablution exists in a number of religions and schools of thought, and nations such as people of Lot (the prophet), Dhul-Qarnayn, John (the prophet) as well as ancient Egyptians [10], Hindus, Cherokees (Indians), Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians, and etc.

For instance, ancient Egyptians had performed ablution twice a day in cold water. In Zoroastrianism, ablution was a part of the set of acts that a person needed to perform in order to be a priest. In Judaism, the people had to perform ablution in order to be able to enter sacred places and one of the places that the ablution could take places was called “Mikveh”. In Christianity, baptism is a rite that is performed in the ceremony of admission to the church with Trinitarian invocation, “I baptize you: In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” The candidate may be wholly or partly immersed in water, the water may be poured over the head, or a few drops may be sprinkled or placed on the head.

 

Etymological Study

In this section, we investigate the words that are used in Quran and imply on the act “Ghusl” from etymological point of view. The first word is derived from the root “غسل” (Ghasala) which means “washing” [6]. Derivatives of “ghusl” might result in different meanings such as “hitting” or “sweating”. The second word is derived from root “طهر” (Tahara) which means “sanitizing” or “purifying”.

Ghusl in Quran

The word “غسل” (Ghusl) and its derivatives are used in Quran 4 times that only one of them implies on the act “Ghusl” (Surat An-Nisa:43) and the other three ones are related to just washing (Surat Al-Ma’idah:6, Surat Sad: 42, Surat Al-Haqqah: 36). In addition, the word “طهر” (Tahara)  and its derivatives are used in Quran 31 times   that only  one of them related to the act “Ghusl” (Surat Al-Ma’idah:6). The way of performing the “Ghusl” is never mentioned in Quran.

Analysis of Hadiths (Narrations)

In this research, no hadiths were found in which prophet Muhammad (pbuh) teaches performing Ghusl. Also, the two terms “Squential Ghusl” or “Ghusl Tartibi” (Persian: غسل ترتیبی) and “Ghusl Irtimasi” (Persian: غسل ارتماسی) wasn’t found to be used directly in the hadiths and Islamic narrations. It seems that these two terms are more due to peoples’ interpretation of Hadiths and narrations.

Based on the narrations, that some of them are attributed to Prophet Muhammad’s wives, it can be concluded that in performing Ghusl, washing the whole body is crucial. However, based on the fact that Prophet Muhamad preferred to perform everything (such as brushing the teeth) first on right side of his body and second  on his left, it is plausible to conclude it is not crucial to perform the Ghusl first on right side and then left side, however it is preferred. Moreover, no strong reasons were found to prove the up-down sequence in Ghusl (first washing the upper part, head and neck, and then the lower part). In addition, washing inside of the nose and mouth is not obligatory in Ghusl.

Here, some examples of narrations about Ghusl in the Islamic literature are presented.

Ja’far al-Sadiq: If you want to do Mazmazah (washing the mouth) or Estinshaq (washing inside of the nose), do it. But, it is not vajib (obligatory) since external parts of body should be washed in the Ghusl, not internal. [4]

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh): if somebody, as the Ghusl, goes completely under the water including the head that is enough. [12]

Aisha: Whenever the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) took a bath after Janaba he firstly washed his hands and then performed Wuzu (partial ablution). Then, he would make his fingers wet and move the roots of his hair with them, and then pour three handfuls of water over his head and then pour water all over his body. [11]

 

Conclusion

In the Ghusl, washing the whole body is Vajib (obligatory). But, there are no evidences of proof for the order of washing, i.e. first head and necks should be washed and then the other parts of body, or first right side of the body should be washed, then the left side.

References

 

[1] Sahih Al-Moslem

[2] Vasele Al-Shie’, Sheikh Hor

[3] Behar Al-Anvar, Allameh Majlesi

[4] Elal Al-Sharaye’, Sheikh Al-Sadooq

[5] Ghesas Al-Anbia’, Sa’labi

[6] Ghamous Almaany, Firoozabadi

[7] Dehkhoda Encyclopedia

[8] Britannica Encyclopedia

[9] Jewish Encyclopedia at www. Jewishencyclopedia.com

[10] Histories, Herodotus

[11] Sahih Al-Bukhari

[12] Man La Yahzarah Al-Faqih, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi

 

Charity

Topic: charity

Date of presentation: 13 June 2013

Translation of sadaghe in english:

char·i·ty
ˈCHerədē/
meaning of charity:
noun
noun: charity; plural noun: charities
  1. 1.
    the voluntary giving of help, typically in the form of money, to those in need.
    synonyms: financial assistance, aidwelfarerelief, financial relief;
    • help or money given voluntarily to those in need.
      “an unemployed teacher living on charity”
  2. 2.
    an organization set up to provide help and raise money for those in need.
    synonyms: nonprofit organization, voluntary organization, charitable institution;More

    • the body of organizations viewed collectively as the object of fundraising or donations.
      “the proceeds of the sale will go to charity”
  3. 3.
    kindness and tolerance in judging others.
    “she found it hard to look on her mother with much charity”
    synonyms: goodwillcompassionconsiderationconcernkindness,kindheartedness, tenderness, tenderheartedness, sympathy,indulgencetoleranceleniencycaritas;

    literarybounteousness
    “show a bit of charity”
    • archaic
      love of humankind, typically in a Christian context.
      “faith, hope, and charity”

 

References: Al-Mufradat fi Gharib alQuran, Al-ghamoos, Sahih al-Bukhari, Sur abadi interpretation, Tafsire majmaolbayan, Al-mizan, Tafsir Nemoone, Sahih moslem, Nahj al-Balagha, Sharh Usul al-Kafi, Ghurar alHikam, Manla Yazhar Ul Faqih, Sawabul-Aamal wa Iqab-ul-Aamal.

Historic, Philological and koranic abstract:

The word” صدقه” is originated from Hebrew word “ Tzedaka”. This Hebrew word means truth, honesty and rightfulness. Also in Judaism,” صدقه” existed. The meaning of this word in Judaism was “helping the poor”. ” صدقه” has originated from two roots. In the root of  “صؚدق”   means rightfulness and truthfulness, and in the root of “صدؙق”  means proof of honesty to the wife by giving Mahr or dowry to her.

In the Quran, the word “صدقه” and its derivatives have been repeated one hundred and forty times. The meaning of “صدقه” in Quran is “Honesty” and “Proving Honesty”. In Surah Hojarat, Quran introduces honesty as scarifying your life and wealth and having a strong faith in God.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُواْ وَ جَاهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَ أَنفُسِهِمْ فىِ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ  أُوْلَئكَ هُمُ الصَّدِقُون

“Indeed believers are who believe god and his prophet, then didn’t doubt. Moreover, they hardly involved in financial difficulties and illnesses due to doing any action to accede god. Indeed they are honest.”

 

In surah Baqarah verse 177, Quran introduces honesty as devoting the things you love, having patients in hard times and keeping your promises.

 Narratives:

Most of the narratives have only stated about the effects of ” صدقه” and have not stated anything about its meaning.

 Result:

” صدقه” in the real meaning means truth and rightfulness. In other words, “صدقه” is offering anything that devoting it requires a deep and strong belief. Because the truth of a belief will be determined when a person faces a situation in which he should sacrifice something he loves or he should choose between two highly important things.

 

 

 

 

 

Ablution in Islam

Ablution in Islam

Meaning/ Translation of Ghosl/Vozu (Ablution) in english:

ab·lu·tion
noun
noun: ablution; plural noun: ablutions
the act of washing oneself (often used for humorously formal effect).
“the women performed their ablutions”
a ceremonial act of washing parts of the body or sacred containers.
late Middle English: from Latin ablutio(n-), from abluere, from ab- ‘away’ + luere ‘wash.’ The original use was as a term

Seminar topic: Ablution in Islam

Date of presentation:

References: Quran, Torah, Bible, “Farhang Abjadi” dictionary, “Lesanolarab”, “Majmaolbahrain”, “Mofradat of Quran”,” Ghamusolmaani”,” Altahghigh”, “Aljadval fi Erab Al-Quran” by “Safi Mahmud Ibn Abdorahim”, “Almizan” by “Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabaei”, “Kashfolasrar Va Edatolabrar” by “Rashidedin Meibodi Ahmad Ibn Abi Asad”, “Interpretation of Sur Abadi” by “Abubakr Atigh Ibn Mohammad”, “Alkabir” by “Fakhredin Razi Abu Abdellah Mohammad Ibn Omar”, “Interpretation of Tabari”, “Elalosharaye” by “Sheikh Sadugh”, “Man La Yahzarohu Al-faghih” by “Sheikh Sadugh”, “Foru Kafi” by “Koleini”, Interpretation of Ayashi” by “Masud Ayashi”, “Bukhari’s Sahih” by “Hafiz Abu Abdellah Bokhari”, “Muslim’s Sahih” by “Muslim Neishaburi”, Al-fighh Ela Al-Mazaheb Arbaa”

Historical summary:

Cleanliness and Baptism before implementation of worship in all religious is very important. For example in Judaism people are required to washed out before turning to this religion or before The Victim or login Temples. Also in Christianity before performing the Eucharist, people were required to wash and cleanse their hands. The … is also another striking symbol of the importance if the cleanliness in this religion.

Etymology:

وضو (Vodhu) is rooted from وضا in the meaning of washing and wiping (with wet hand) some parts of the body with the intent of closeness to god. It word has not been used in the Quran and words such as غسل in the meaning of washing and مسح in the meaning of wiping hand has been used instead.

The Ablution verse in Quran: Maeedah – 6:

يَأَيهُّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلىَ الصَّلَوةِ فَاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَ أَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلىَ الْمَرَافِقِ وَ امْسَحُواْ بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَ أَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلىَ الْكَعْبَينْ‏ِ وَ إِن كُنتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُواْ وَ إِن كُنتُم مَّرْضىَ أَوْ عَلىَ‏ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تجَدُواْ مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَ أَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَ لَكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَ لِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُون

Because of dissimilar hadiths (narrations) of the character “ل” in the word “ارجلکم”, from the etymological perspective there are two different inferences in the meaning of the verse possible:

– Then wash your faces and your hand to your elbows and wipe a part of your heads and wash your feet to your ankles. (ارجلَکم)

– Then wash your faces and your hand to your elbows and wipe a part of your heads and your feet to your ankles. (ارجلِکم)

The Shee’a and Sunni religious experts based in their own narrations and inferences use one either of these meanings for performing the Vodhu.

Hadiths for ablution:

The interesting point in most of both Sheea and Sunni hadiths is the accordance of the hadith with the way of performing the ablution with the followers of each sect.

In “Bukhari’s Sahih” is narrated: It is narrated From “Ibn Abbas” that he did the ablution like this: He took a handful of water and washed his mouth with half of it and his nose with the other half. The he took another handful of water and washed his face with both hands. Then he took another handful of water and washed his right hand and then his left hand with another handful. Then he wiped his head. Then he splashed a handful of water to his right foot and washed it and did the same for his left foot with another handful of water. At the end he said that I saw Prophet Muhammad doing the ablution like this. (Bukhari – Page 140)

Other hadiths used for elicitation of the way of doing the ablution, despite the details and narrator are exactly the same as this.

In “Man la yahzarohu Al – Faghih” is narrated: “Zararah Ibn-Aleen” asked “Imam Bagher” about the extents of washing the face in ablution. He said: It is the area covered between the thumb and the middle finger of hand from where the hair has started to grow in forehead to the chin and whatever outside of this area is not considered “face”. Temples are not considered face as well. Then he asked: How about the parts covered by hair? He said there is no need to try to reach under the hair by water but the surface of that part should be washed. And the extent of washing the hands is from elbows to the finger tips. The extent of wiping the head is wiping with three fingers all together from the front of the head and the extent of wiping the feet is to put palms on the tip of the toes and wipe it to the ankle and the right foot should be done before the left foot and it has to be done with the remaining wetness of the hands without using more water. The interpreter says: apparently this hadith requiring the wiping of the feet by the whole palms which matched the “Baznathi’s” narration from “Imam Reza” but the more common narration is the “Mash Al-Musamma” which means the extent of wiping should be as much as the amount to be called wiping, with one, two or more fingers. (Al-Faghih – Book 1, Page 72)

Conclusion:

The interesting point attracting attention after reviewing the hadiths in this presentation is that most of Sunni books of hadith are dated in 2nd and 3rd centuries and most of the Shee’a books of hadith are being authored after the 4th century. The oldest hadith book of Shee’a is “Asrar Al-Muhammad” or the book of “Salim Ibn Gheys Hilali” dated in 2nd century which the quality of performing ablution is not mentioned in it. It seems like mostly the differences between the quality of performing ablution between Shee’a and Sunni has been started form 400 years after Prophet’s death and is continued until now. And it is strange that it looks like the Muslims have not had any conflicts about performing ablution before that. By removing personal inferences with regard to this research, as said at the end of the Vodhu verse by Allah, goal of performing ablution is cleanliness for meeting Allah (Salaat) and not forcing people to have hardship and difficulty.